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The Fundamentals of Education:
A Socratic Perspective on the Cultivation of Humanity


              Hospitality to the Stranger Within

  2. What is Fundamental to Education?
  3. Self-Knowledge, Secondary Talk and The Examined Life
  3.5 Introduction to an Artistic Commentary
       on George Steiner's Real Presences
  4. Academic Talk about the Arts
  5. Artistic Talk about the Arts
  6. The Labor Cost of Academic and Artistic Talk
  7. An Artistic Commentary on
      George Steiner's Real Presences
  8. A Socratic Summa Summarum of the Secondary City
  9. The Buddhist Hands Interpretation
      of the Adagio Cantabile
10. Peak Performance as a Function of Envisioning
11. Toward a Socratic Persistence of Vision
12. The Relevance of Character for the Design of Education Systems
13. Artistic Performance Within the Gates of the Secondary City
14. A Stranger in a Strange Land
15. The Return from Exile
16. The Immanence of the Other
17. Hospitality to the Stranger

               Hospitality to the Stranger in Dialogue

18. The Birth of a Socratic Philosopher
19. Of Philosophy and Method
20. The Malaise of Public Discourse

The Teachings of the Anti-Socratic
21. Anyone with a Different Point of View is an Enemy
      that must be defeated.
22. Rudeness has a place in intelligent conversation.
23. Winning is more important than truth.
24. Important topics can be justly handled
      in the time between commercial breaks.
25. Democracy can validate ideas
      (the majority makes right).
26. You ARE your Perspective.

27. The Art of the Anti-Socratic Talking Head
28. The Talking Head and The Problem of Endless Talk
29. Persuasion in the Socratic Method of Conversation
30. Socratic Persuasion Summary
31. The Socratic Method of Conversation as the Practice of Peace
32. The Anti-Socratic War on Peacemaking

PART III: The Fundamentals of the Human Condition

33. What does it Mean to be Human?
34. The Constant Human Response to Variation
35. Repetition, Variation, Complexity and Meaning
36. Exploring the Structure of the Artistic
39. Aesthetic Incommensurability in Natural Language
40. Incommensurability in Formal Systems and Natural Language
41. The Human Condition and the Art of Socratic Questioning
42. Redefining Socratic Questions
43. The Freedoms of Art

PART IV: The Art of the Examined life

Part IV takes the art theme of Parts I-III into implimentation and concludes the philosophical foundations portion of "The Fundamentals of Education" with a description of the fundamental principles that are the foundation of living the examined life. These principles are the fundamentals of education. Section one of Part IV, in contrast to some of the writing in the first three parts, will seek the utmost simplification. Living the examined life is based on principles so simple that they flow naturally out of the instincts of a child. The first section of Part Four, as I say in its introduction (already written) that "In the presentation of these fundamentals, I will not strive to teach anything new. I will merely seek to remind you of simple truths that nobody had to teach you." It is in the rememberance of these truths of human living that the examined life comes to life and brings a depth of meaning and virtue to human living that can be found in no other way.

PARTS V through VII: Research Implications:


Part V explores the first direction of research involving the creation of new types of Socratic exercises that do not depend on the dialogues of Plato for their form, yet retain the important character developing Socratic dynamics. The example provided is a method to encourage a Socratic envisioning of personal development. The purpose is to help students develop their own personal vision of living the examined life. The concept of the 'Hero' is used as a focus to help students envision their better self.

              Written Tools for encouraging the Examined Life
PART VI looks into the second direction of research by exploring the use of the Socratic method as a written text. An example of how to apply the Socratic method to modern topics in written form is provided. The Moral Bankruptcy of Faith is a Socratic dialogue I wrote that is close to the dialectical style of the early dialogues of Plato. This dialogue can be used in written or oral form. It uses a technique for refuting definitions that relies on clarifying the scope of knowledge pertaining to morality. It also uses the "one example" technique, which allows an idea or definition to stand or fall based on the success or failure of finding one illustrative example of the idea that is able to stand up to further examination. The net result of this dialogue is that the respondent is unable to either define morality or the scope of application of moral knowledge. The implications of this dialogue are discussed regarding the application of the Socratic method in both written and oral form to a broader range of topics.

The most exciting implication of this line of research is the recovery of an ancient aspect of Socratic dialogue. The most famous portrait of Socrates is in the early dialogues of Plato. Here, Socrates and his conversation partners fail to find the answer they seek as each definition is refuted. The repeated cycle of definition and refutation ends with an admission of failure to find the knowledge they seek. We almost never use the Socratic method as portrayed in the early dialogues of Plato because it is too complex to reliably overturn another's deeply held view through simply asking questions.  The verbal possibilities are too unwieldy, the tenacity of people in clinging to their views too great. The Moral Bankruptcy of Faith is a demonstration of the ability to use the style of Socratic method similar to the style the early dialogues of Plato, in application to modern topics. This dialogue is the first, or one of very few, dialogues since Plato that actually captures the flavor of functionality of the early dialogues of Plato.


PART VII demonstrates a third direction of new research. This direction explores the possible use of the Socratic method as a formal system such as propositional logic or formal systems capable of basic arithmetic. The first step in this research is to create methods for generating valid Socratic questions in a way that functions through dependence on rules and exhibits semantic independence from natural language. A proof of concept example is provided that describes a technique for generating valid Socratic questions in response to a definition by attending only to the formalities of the definition's grammar. The introduction of this kind of formality means that we can create effective Socratic questions that can be asked without the questioner knowing the meaning of the respondent's definition. This line of research favors the development of the Socratic method as seen in the stylings of the early dialogues of Plato. The proof of concept example is constructed by using a formal rule that eliminates most of the natural language semantic entanglements of human dialogue. This research demonstrates that the Socratic facilitator may indeed be quite ignorant, yet still able to successfully conduct a Socratic process. It also indicates that it is more possible than previously believed to write computer programs capable of having effective Socratic dialogues with a human being.

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